M. D. Forensic Medicine
Curriculum of postgraduate
training and examination pattern in M. D. (Forensic
Medicine) of Bhavnagar University consists of the
1. A series of postgraduate
lectures by P. G. teachers
2. A series of seminars by
the P. G. student.
3. Postgraduate case
discussion on Autopsy, Injuries insanity, Age
Impotency, Social Offences, Poisoning etc.
4. Postgraduate tutorial
classes – chapter or subject - wise.
5. attending and performing
medico legal autopsies.
6. Attending and performing
medico legal work at the casualty
7. Participation in
undergraduate theory and practical teaching.
8. Undergoing training when
posted in different units and laboratories of the
9. Short periods of posting
in the departments of Psychiatry, Radiology,
Pathology, Odontology, Anatomy, Biochemistry and
10. Pursuing the
thesis work / dissertation work on the topic
allotted by the P.G. teacher.
11. Participation in the
departmental research work.
12. Visits to the scene offence
the arranged by the professor with the help of
13. Attending the courts to
SYLLABUS FOR M.D. FORENSIC
(A) Forensic Pathology
Including Thanatology :
Inquests, courts and legal
procedures, investigation for scene of death, medico
legal autopsy and exhumation procedures,
identification for the dead, estimation of the time
of death, identification from skeletal remains and
teeth, death from blunt force injuries, death from
cutting and stunning wounds, fire arm injuries,
general features and medico legal aspects of wounds
trauma and diseases, death from acute neurogenic
cardiovascular failure, death from inference with
oxygenation as physical, hypoxic and anoxic deaths,
death from burns, electrically and lightning, death
from starvation, jet and cold exposures, death from
rape and sexual assaults, death from therapeutic
mishaps, death from poisoning and drug abuse
artifact in Forensic Pathology, Negative and abs
cure autopsies, identification of trace evidence and
biological materials, collection, preservation
packing and dispatch or organs and tissues for
laboratory examination physical evidence in criminal
cases, Forensic pathologist as a witness, Radiology
as an aid Forensic Pathology.
(B) History of Forensic
Medicine, Clinical Forensic Medicine and Forensic
Historical development and
progress of Forensic Medicine in India and abroad;
Medical examination of living subjects for the
determination of age, sex, race, injuries,
poisoning, impotency, sterility, virginity,
pregnancy, delivery, legitimacy and paternity;
examination of victim and accused in rape and
unnatural sexual offenses; certification of fitness,
disease, death and drunk ness disability evaluation
and medical examination in insurance cases; medico
legal aspects of emergencies in general and hospital
practice recording of dying declaration; medico
legal aspects of resuscitation and intensive case.
Medicolegal aspects of insanity
and abnormal human behavior classification and
causes if insanity, psychopathic personality and the
mentally retarded; sexual deviations and
perversions; diagnosis of insanity and feigned
insanity; restraint on a lunatic amnesia, feigned
deaf, mutism and malingering; medicolegal value of
E.C.G., lie detector and truth serum (Narco-analysis);
civil and criminal procedure relating to an insane
criminals; psychiatric disabilities following trauma
in the court of law-problems of confidentiality and
privileged communication; medicolegal aspects of
(C) Forensic Toxicology and
Medical Jurisprudence :
Definitions & law relating to
drugs and poisons; medicolegal aspects and pattern
of poisons; routes of administration and action of
poisons diagnosis of poisoning in the living and
dead; post mortem examination in a cased of
poisoning and collection; preservation, packing and
dispatch of viscera and other biological materials
for chemical analysis in poisoning cases; duties of
medical man in a suspected cases of poisoning;
toxicological and medicolegal aspects and treatment
of various poisons; medicolegal aspects of drug
dependence and drunkenness; radiation hazards and
war gases; principles of common laboratory and
analytical methods used for isolation and
identification of poisons. Toxicologist in the court
Statutes relating to medical and
allied professions, Hippocrates oath and the codes
of ethics; powers and functions of the Indian
Medical Councils; regulation and maintenance of the
standard of medical education; rights and duties of
registered medical practitioners; ethical and legal
requirements of the practice of medicine- infamous
conduct and disciplinary control; doctors duties in
criminal matters legal and ethical aspects of family
planning and population control – abortion,
sterilization and contraceptive, medicolegal
relating to artificial insemination; divorce and
nullity of marriage; legal and ethical aspects of
suicide and euthanasias; medicolegal aspects of
moment of death and organ transplantation, legal and
ethical problems relating to therapeutic trials and
human experimentation; health hazards in industries
and professions and their medicolegal aspects
doctor’s duties under the workman’s compensation
acts; professional liability insurances and medical
defaces societies; standard of care in diagnosis and
treatment – medical negligence in general and
hospital practice; medicolegal aspects of adverse
drug reactions and iatrogenic states; medical expert
witness and his testimony problems of confidentially
and privileged communication.
trends in toxicology viz., industrial lexicology,
environmental toxicology, blake hole etc.
- AIDS and
related ethico social issues.
(D) Forensic Biochemistry, Immunology and
chemistry of blood C.S.F. and vitreous Humor
Composition and identification of body fluids –
blood, semen, saliva, sweet, faces, urine, bile,
milk, sputum and C.S.F. etc.
findings and investigations in cases of myocardial
ischemia and injuries rape and other sexual
offences; transfusion, reactions and blood group
incompatibility states allergic states and
advances in analytical techniques as applied to
Forensic Medicine and Toxicology.
Fundamentals of immunology-immunoglobulin,
immunological principles, terms and theories,
antigens, antibodies, complement etc.
antibody reactions and the principles involved.
and anaphylaxis and heir medicolegal aspects.
Agglutinins and agglutininogens-plant agglutinins.
antigens and blood group systems and their Mendelian
protein groups-Gm. Gc type, haptoglobins,
transferring type, lipoprotein groups.
Polymorphic blood enzyme – serum esterases,
erythrocytes esterases, blood phosphates,
cholinesterase, pseudocholinesterases, lactic
dehydrogenase, glucose 6 phosphates dehydrogenase,
red cell phosphoglucomutase and alkaline phosphates
and its variants.
of individualization of finger printing of blood
factors in other body fluids and tissues.
- Method of
raising putrefaction and titration of group specific
and species specific antiserum.
- Use of DNA
in forensic practices.
(E) Forensic Anthropology
Including Forensic Odontology :
landmarks of anthropological significance.
Identification techniques – finger and palm print
(dermatoglyphics) footprints, lip-prints and
palate-prints, identification from complexion and
features, bodily measurements and weights,
anthropometric measurements in the living
belrtillon’s method, measurements and descriptive
characteristics of head and face; hair – Forensic
age-earlier years; age later years.
- Sexing of
Calculation of stature from skeleton or parts
difference in human skeleton.
Anthropometry as related to skull and individual
bones likes mandible, clavicle, scapula, long bone,
vertebrae. Hip bone and pelvis, sacrum, talus,
reconstruction from skull and superimposition
Comparative osteology – identification of human and
common domestic and wild animals from skeleton.
odontology – historical back grounds of.
- Teeth and
identification – racial features, geographical
distribution occupation and habit and socioeconomic
Identification from dental peculiarities, dental
remains and dental restoration – artificial denture
and dental fittings.
determination from teeth-dentition-temporary and
permanent and secondary dental changes (Gustofson’s
- Teeth and
crime – bite marks battered baby.
- Teeth and
trauma – accidental injuries and criminal assaults.
Pathological changes in jay bones and teeth caused
- Teeth and
negligence – malpraxis in dentistry and failure to
preserve trace evidence.
and preparation of skeletal remains and teeth for
- Age of
skeletal remains – how old are the remains? Use of
radiology in skeletal and dental identification.
(F) Medical law, Ethics and
Human Rights :
relating to medical and accidents, sterilization
family planning contraception and abortion;
treatment, care and custody of the insane and insane
criminals; sexual offences and sex perversions.
Legitimacy adoption, divorce and nullity of
marriage, certification and disposals of dead, sale
of drugs and poisons, pharmacy and drug acts;
medical and allied professions, anatomical and
tissue donation acts; industrial hazards and
workman’s compensation acts – medical council and
medical degrees acts.
- Powers and
functions of the Indian and state medical councils.
duties / liabilities in criminal matters; under the
prevention of communicable disease act; in food
adulteration acts, in public health and sanitation
- Rights and
duties of registered medical practitioner.
Disciplinary control and infamous conduct.
for unauthorized autopsies and related procedures.
duties and liabilities in general and hospital
practice, standards of medical case, medical
negligence and therapeutic misadventures.
Professional secrecy and privileged communications.
liabilities for defamation.
Medicolegal and ethical problems relating to
artificial insemination embryo transfer, test-tube
fertilization and genetic engineering.
trends in assisted conception its ethical aspects.
- Legal and
ethical aspects of sex change orations.
in scientific and medical technology and their legal
and ethical implications.
Professional liability, insurance and medical
Medicolegal aspects of resuscitation and intensive
Medicolegal and ethical aspects of emergencies in
general and hospital practice.
expert witness and his testimony problems of
confidentiality and privileged communication in the
court of law.
Physician’s liabilities while attending in will
Psychiatrist – patient’s testimonial privilege.
Hippocratic oath and code of medical ethics.
questions relating to the use of Red Cross symbol.
- Rights of
the unborn and the minor; protection against
physical and mental torture brain washing and
physician’s liabilities, the patient in General and
Hospital practice, Health and right to work and
obligation of the state and physician’s; the dying
and right to life euthanasia and suicide.
rights of privacy and physical integrity and
violation or invasion thereof. (Physician’s
liabilities for violation or invasion thereof).
concept of property, the dead body disposals of the
dead and survivor’s rights.
- Legal and
ethical problems relating to therapeutic trial,
human experimentations and innovative therapy.
Medicolegal aspects of : the moment of death and
organ / tissue transplamtation; sports and medically
prescribed exercises; stress situations.
- Consent in
medical practice and compulsory medical examination
against self incrimination.
value and implications of patient’s medical records
and patient’s right to inspeed and obtain copies
- Legal and
ethical aspects of food additives.
health, legal and ethical aspects of environmental
in war time rights of wounded or sick enemy
soldiers, prisoners of war and civilians to medical
care and treatment & legal and ethical aspects of
- MRTP act.
(G) Traumatology including
Medicolegal Aspects of Wounds :
Definitions and general consideration of wounds.
Classification of wounds caused by mechanical
Histopathology and medicolegal aspects of blunt
injuries, stabbing injuries, fire-arm injuries and
injuries caused by detonation of explosives.
Medicolegal aspects of wound in general.
examination in traumatic deaths.
responses to trauma-local and general.
effects and complications of trauma.
- Shock and
circulatory disturbances following trauma.
traumatic thrombosis and embolic manifestations.
- Trauma and
infection – local wound infection, regional
infective diseases, general – septicaemia and
pyaemia and specific infective diseases following
renal failure after injuries.
of wound healing and repair and timing of the wound.
and morbid states caused by trauma.
changes and disabilities following trauma.
Exacerbation of diseases caused by trauma.
- Trauma and
and systematic injuries and their medicolegal
Disabilities following trauma-disability evaluation
caused by electricity and lightening.
injuries-wounds caused by heat and cold.
effects and injuries.
produced by increased atmospheric pressure-blast
injuries, decreased atmosph. Pressure, criminal
miscarriage, chemical agents.
- Bomb blast
disasters causes, management and effects.
Transportation injuries and hazards caused on the
roads, railways, aviation and navigation.
and neonatal injuries-infanticide and battered body.
due to sexual assaults and sex perversions.
hospital and laboratory accidents and injuries.
- Role and
scope of radiological investigation in Forensic
(H) Methods, value and
evaluation of photography, video films and audio
cassettes in Forensic fields.
(I) Methods, procedure of
writing, filing and maintenance of hospital record
of medical, medicolegal and other purposes like
research, planning, community benefits etc.
SCHEMES OF EXAMINATION
Examination in M.D. (Forensic
Medicine) consists of the following :
1. Four theory paper of 3
hours duration each as stated beliow.
( The theory paper may consist
of short answer / long answer / essay type
A. Basic Medical Sciences in
relation to Forensic Medicine.
Including Anatomy / Physiology /
B. Clinical Forensic Medicine
including Forensic Psychiatry, Medical
Jurisprudence, Medical law and ethics.
C. Forensic Pathology
including Thanatology, Autopsy Pathology and
D. Recent Advances,Taxicology
& allied Forensic Medicine.
2. Clinical and Practical.
3. Viva – voce It will cover all
the sections in Forensic Medicine, Toxicology and
allied subjects covered in theory papers and
The practical and viva – voce
examination may last for two days on the subjects
covered by the theory papers and the syllabus. This
examination shall consists of the following.
A. Autopsy examination (Adult
Autopsy and/or Foetal autopsy )
B. Injury case examination
C. Age Estimation and
D. Alcoholic examination &
E. Insanity examination 7
F. Impotency examination 7
G. Spot examination, reporting
on microscopes slides of Forensic importance,
skeletal remains, bones, x-ray plates, photographs,
weapons and exhibits of medico legal importance and
poisons (3), wet specimen
H. Expert opinion case file
Please Note : The candidates are
required to produce their records books of well
legal autopsies and other medico
legal case examination reports conducted / attended
by them to examiners at the time of practical